Poster Presentation 14th Lorne Infection and Immunity 2024

Vaccine development approaches for African Swine fever virus (ASFV) (#151)

MD Tanjir Islam 1 , Alex McAuley 1
  1. CSIRO, East Geelong, VIC, Australia

African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal and contagious pig disease caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), which can result in mortality rates of up to 100% in infected pigs. Clinical signs of ASF in pigs can range from mild to severe depending on the viral isolate. ASFV cannot be transmitted from pigs to humans but is one of the highest biosecurity threats to Australia and the broader Asia Pacific region. There are currently no licenced vaccines available for ASF, and the poor understanding of ASFV pathogenesis and viral innate immune evasion strategies hinder ASF vaccine development. Live and inactivated vaccines are effective against ASFV but cannot be commercialized because of side effects and reversion to pathogenic forms. Subunit, live vector, and DNA vaccines are less effective against ASFV. The challenge is to develop a safe vaccine, effective against all ASFV lineages that can be produced economically, at scale, and can be readily adopted by pig producers. Recent studies reveal that the combination of cellular and humoral responses tend to be more effective against ASFV. An ideal ASF vaccine should be stable, stimulate both humoral and cellular immunity, provide complete protection across ASFV subtypes, have minimal side effects, and be DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) compatible. Using novel adjuvants and delivery systems in conventional vaccine strategies can be promising to elicit higher efficacy. Understanding the knowledge gaps of mechanisms of pig immunity and protective responses to ASFV can pave the way for developing an effective ASFV vaccine.